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Mar 7, 2024 | Business Law

Ensuring the Future of Your Business: A Guide to Buy-Sell Agreements


In today’s dynamic business landscape, planning for unforeseen events is crucial, particularly for the nearly 33.1 million small businesses in the United States, many of which are family owned. Despite their significant role in the economy, many small businesses lack formal succession plans, which can jeopardize their future and the legacy of their founders. A Buy-Sell Agreement is a vital tool in this planning, acting as a binding contract between business owners that stipulates the reassignment of a partner’s share in the event of their departure or death. This agreement is essential for preventing disputes, ensuring smooth transitions under challenging circumstances and maintaining the stability and integrity of the business.

Forms of Buy-Sell Agreements

When it comes to Buy-Sell Agreements, there are two primary forms that cater to different organizational structures and preferences: Cross-Purchase Agreements and Entity-Purchase Agreements.

Cross-Purchase Agreement is often favored by businesses with a small number of owners. In this type of agreement, the remaining owners directly purchase the departing owner’s share, creating a straightforward and tax-efficient transition of ownership. This approach is particularly advantageous in businesses with three or fewer owners, as it can lead to a step-up in basis for tax purposes. Furthermore, in cases where life insurance policies are utilized, the benefits received by the remaining owners are typically tax-free and do not increase the business’s value.

Conversely, the Entity-Purchase Agreement is designed for scenarios where the business entity itself buys out the departing owner’s interest. This form is more efficient for companies with several owners, streamlining the buy-out process by centralizing it within the entity rather than distributing the responsibility among individual owners.

Both agreement types aim to provide a clear, predetermined pathway for business transition, ensuring stability and continuity while accommodating the specific needs of the business and its owners.

Key Elements of Buy-Sell Agreements

A Buy-Sell Agreement is underpinned by several critical elements that dictate its effectiveness and fairness. First, the agreement must clearly identify all involved stakeholders, such as partners or owners, and their respective stakes in the business’s equity. Second, it’s imperative to define the triggering events, like death, disability, divorce, retirement or bankruptcy, which would activate the buy-out clause of the agreement. Finally, it is crucial to establish a funding mechanism to ensure the agreement can be financially executed when triggered.

Funding of Buy-Sell Agreements

The intricacies of these agreements necessitate a reliable source of funding to ensure that monetary transactions can occur seamlessly upon the departure of a business owner. Among the available funding sources – cash reserves, sinking funds, installment payments, loans and life insurance – life insurance often is preferred for its cost efficiency and tax benefits. Specifically, an entity-purchase agreement allows the business to purchase life insurance contracts on each owner, with the business paying premiums and acting as both owner and beneficiary of the policies. This structure ensures that the business can use the death benefit, received income-tax-free, to buy the deceased owner’s shares. Conversely, in a cross-purchase arrangement, each owner holds a policy on the others, utilizing the death benefit to buy out the shares of a deceased partner.

Within the framework of Buy-Sell Agreements, where ensuring financial preparedness is crucial for a seamless transition of business ownership, the cross-purchase arrangement introduces unique complexities alongside its advantages. In this model, each business owner holds a life insurance policy on the other owners, leveraging the death benefit to buy out a deceased partner’s shares. This approach, while offering tax benefits and a direct mechanism for funding buyouts, requires careful navigation of several challenges. The administration becomes notably complex as the number of owners increases, leading to a proliferation of policies and potential disparities in premium costs due to differences in age or health. Moreover, the necessity for each owner to qualify for life insurance introduces additional considerations regarding insurability and premium affordability. The arrangement demands a high degree of trust among owners to ensure policies are maintained appropriately and emphasizes the need for meticulous planning and regular updates to the agreement to reflect any changes in the business’s structure or ownership.

Valuation of the Business

Central to these agreements is the valuation of the business interests. Accurate and fair valuation is essential, not only for the integrity of the agreement but also to ensure that all parties are adequately compensated in the event of a buy-out. Common valuation methods include the Fixed Price method, which, while straightforward, may become outdated and not reflective of the business’s current value. Alternatively, the Independent Appraisal method ensures accuracy but can be costly and time-consuming. The Formula Approach, based on financial metrics like earnings or revenues, offers a balance but requires periodic updates to remain relevant and accurate.

The case of Connelly v. Internal Revenue Service highlights the critical importance of maintaining an up-to-date valuation in Buy-Sell Agreements. This legal dispute arose when the IRS included life insurance proceeds in the estate valuation of a deceased shareholder, significantly increasing the estate’s tax liability. The 8th Circuit Court of Appeals’ decision, which is pending Supreme Court review, underscores the complexities in business valuation for estate planning and its consequential tax implications. An updated valuation, preferably on an annual basis, ensures that the business’s worth is accurately reflected at the time of a triggering event, thereby avoiding disputes and unforeseen tax liabilities. This practice not only aligns with best business practices but also safeguards the interests of all parties involved in the Buy-Sell Agreement.


A Buy-Sell Agreement is a strategic blueprint essential for the future of your business, ensuring its survival and prosperity across generations. At Wilchins Cosentino & Novins LLP, our practice areas include Business Law in which our business attorneys specialize in advising owners of privately held companies throughout their business journey, from formation to exit planning. Learn more about our Business Law practice and our business law attorneys who can assist you with advice and counsel for your unique needs.

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